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Old Questions and Answers about Athena

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Old Questions and Answers about Athena

Index


Homer and Athena

Question: Does Athena enhance or diminish Odysseus' stature?

Answer: In Homer's Odyssey Athena uses her magic powers to do both as appropriate. But there is a more important observation. Athena states that she is a goddess and has great power and that Odysseus should believe in her. This could mean that all the great things that Odysseus does are really only a tribute to Athena. Or it could mean that Athena is helping Odysseus because of his good deeds. It is hard to think of Odysseus as a religious man who is being rewarded for his religiosity, because of our view of the Odyssey as an adventure story, and because of our Christian heritage, but this is Homer's point. The problem for our society is that a powerful man like Odysseus is worshipping a woman.

Question: Can I hear some more about how Athene helps men, e.g. Odysseus?

How she helps men is easy; why is more difficult. She deflects spears, directs spears, inspires, advises, and conspires with the other deities. But why?

Question: In the book "The Odyssey" is Athena a Hero?

Answer: No. Athena is a goddess worshipped by the hero Odysseus. Athena guides the hero and enables his actions. She also rewards him for his devotion.

Question: What role did Athena play in the Iliad?

Answer: Athena is a goddess and one pupose of the Iliad is to to help the reader relate to her as a goddess. Her realm is wisdom and craft and she provides support for the Achaeans in these areas. She has a bias for the Achaens and she even went so far as to deceive Hector so he could be killed by Achilles.

Question: can i see a myth on ATHENA?

Answer: What I have for you is a quote from Book III of the Odyssey of Homer.

"The the goddess, grey-eyed Athene, spake to him again: 'Yea, herein hast thou spoken aright, dear father: and Telemachus may well obey thee, for before all things this is meet....

Therewith grey-eyed Athene departed in the semblence of a sea-eagle; and amazement fell on all that saw it, and the old man he marvelled when his eyes beheld it. And he took the hand of Telemachus and spake and hailed him; 'My friend, methinks that thou wilt in no sort be a coward and a weakling, if indeed in thy youth the gods thus follow with thee to be thy guides...."

This is what Homer reports. Athene has disguised herself as an old man. She stays with Telemachus to advise him. When it comes time for her to leave she changes into a se-eagle and flies away. The witnesses to this happening are amazed to have been in the presence of a deity and speak favorably of it. A myth is taken to be an explanation of some fact, but it is not necessarily truthful. You should consider whether the definition applies here. This passage does seem to confirm the observation that Athena evolved from bird goddess. Notice how the aegis in the following picture: Click here Looks a lot like a wing.

Question: Why does Athena disguise herself throughout the epic? what is the meaning for the many disguises?

Answer: She does this for the same reason that Odysseus does this when he arrives in Ithaca. It is a matter of being cunning, and tricking people into doing what you want them to do. Sun Tsu in his book The Art of War says "So only a brilliant ruler or a wise general who can use the highly intelligent for espionage is sure of great success. This is essential for military operations, and the armies depend on this in their action." Athena is a brilliant ruler.

Question: Why is Athena considered a patron and a mentor of Odysseus?

Answer: Homer refers to Odysseus as "of many counsels." Of himself Odysseus says: "I am Osysseus, son os Laertes, who am in men's minds for all manner of wiles...." In Book XIII of the Odyssey Athena says: "Crafty must he be and knavish, who would outdoo thee in all manner of guile, even if it were a god encountered thee. Hardy man, subtle of wit, of guile in satiate, so thou was not even in thine own country to cease from thy sleights and knavish words, which thous lovest from the bottom of thine heart! But come, no mpore let us tell of these things, being both of us practiced in deceits, for that thou art of all men far the first in counsel and in discourse, and I in the company of all the gods win renown for my wit and wile." Later she says: "Wherefore I may in no wise leave thee in grief, so courteous art thou, so ready of wit and so prudent." Athena incorporates those skills which Odysseus masters.

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Greece and Athena

Question: What impact did Athena have on Greece?

Answer: The Athenians were so respectful of Athena that they built the Parthenon for her. This was the most sublime of all Greek temples. It was 237 feet long, 110 feet wide and 60 feet high. Inside a gold and ivory statue of Athena by Phidias stood 30 feet high. The Athenians were grateful to Athena for the gifts she was thought to have provided. These included the olive tree, the plough, taming of horses, yoking of oxen, shipbuilding, goldsmithing, fulling, shoemaking, and other branches of industry. Spinning and weaving were referred to as the works of Athena. As the patron of wise council and the protectress of cities she was considered instrumental in the defeat of the Persians. Atheneum was the name of a building dedicated to Athena. There were many academies that came to bear this name.

Question: How did Athene enhance the Greeks or humans in the way of technology and wisdom?

Answer: The Greeks credit Athena with teaching them how to weave and many other like arts. She also provided them with the olive tree which was a foundation of their economy. They credited her also with helping them win the wars against Persia which was literally a miracle.

Question: How was Athena used in art to represent women in Athens?

Answer: Athenian sculptors used Athenian ladies for models for sculptures of Athena.

Question: How did the Goddess Athena affect Greek art and architecture?

Answer: Athena became the goddess of Athens by providing the Athenians with the olive tree. This tree provided wealth to the Athenians and they used their wealth to build statues of Athena. Many vases were produced to provide prizes at athletic contests in honor of Athena. Later, the Athenians were very greatful to Athena for the help she provided in the Persian war. After the second Greek victory they erected the Parthenon in her honor. This great monument has continued to affect architecture.

Question: Why is Athena such an important goddess in Athens?

Answer: There was a contest once for patron of Athens and Athena won by providing Athens with the olive tree. This was important for Athens because the olive tree was able to thrive in spite of poor soil and rocky terrain.

Question: what is the name of athenas temple?

Answer: Athena had many temples built for her, but the most important and most famous one was the Parthenon in Athens.

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Nature of Athena

Question: Why is Athena a great goddess?

Answer: Athena is the goddess of wisdom and being wise is very important. The Athenians were very thankful to Athena for helping them to win the war against Persia. The Persian forces were well equipped and much more numerous than the Greeks.

Question: Why didn't Athena ever marry?

Answer: She was a virgin goddess who never married and never had sex. It is important that her wisdom is able to resist the charms of Aphrodite. It is also that sex is, in some respects dirty, a pollutant. Aristotle ranked the functions of the body according to their position on the body. The head, which contained the brain and its capacity for thought, was considered the highest. The excretory organs, at the base of the body, were considered the lowest. Unfortunately this puts the sexual organs in a very low category. There is commonly justification in this ranking found in the fact that sexual intercourse can lead to disease. This idea is also reinforced by the existance of the hymen, which is a membrane that covers the vagina in young women. The existence of the hymen provided proof that some women were virgins. These women are believed to be pure and virtuous because they never could have known the pleasures of sex. Sexual intercourse is sometimes referred to as carnal knowledge for this reason. The idea, here, is that the pleasures of sex are addictive for a woman and that once she starts having sex she will not be able to contain herself and she will do many unreasonable things to get more sex. Perhaps this belief by the Greek men justified their seclusion of women. For Athena then, her virginity provides assurance that her thoughts are pure, virtuous, and reasonable.

Question: I would like to know some of Athena's fears and hatreds, needs and desires.

Answer: As a goddess Athena did not have to worry much about the petty emotions that you mention. The only deity more powerful than she was Zeus, and she was his favorite daughter. She did not like her temples to be defiled and she did not like to be forgotten. She liked people who were moral, shrewd, and industrious. She was sometimes swayed by gifts, but she preferred intellect and invention to the smell of burnt meat.

Question: Why did Athena want the head of Medusa?

Answer: Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, says: "Once (Medusa) was beautiful, Pursued by many lovers, and best of beauties, she had glorious hair,...(Poseidon) had raped her in Athena's temple, A scene that shocked the nerves of (Zeus)'s pure daughter, who held her breastplate up to shield her eyes; as if to warn the girl of carelessness she turned her hair to snakes. Today (Athena) to keep bold strangers at a proper distance wears snakes on the gold shield across her breast." Ovid is saying that Athena wears the head to warn girls not to be careless and to keep strangers at the proper distance.

Question: Was Athena a very well known Goddess? Are there any pictures of Athena? How much should we believe the story of Athena?

Answer: Yes, Athena was well known. There are many stories of Athena. Some are pure fantasy and others are quite credible. You must deal with them one at a time. You should select a story that interests you and ask about it.

Question: How is Athena representative of wisdom and knowledge?

Answer: Her action is to provide humans with sound advice that helps them out. This could be a battle tactic, a craft technique, or just how to get along.

WHEN IN GREECE I BOUGHT A BLUE EYED OWL - THE SALES PERSON TOLD ME THAT THE GODDESS OF WISDOM HAD A BLUE EYED OWL ON HER SHOULDER TO WARN HER OF HARM. IS THIS MADE UP OR IS THERE SOME TRUTH TO IT?

Answer: There is some truth to it but it is also sort of silly. Athena is the goddess of wisdom. Homer refers to Athena as grey-eyed Athene. Her eyes are almost blue. The owl is more than a symbol of her. Athena is sometimes represented as an owl. You cannot hide anything from a goddess because she 'knowest all' so she would have no reason to have an owl for this purpose.

Question: is there any movie made on Athrna?

Answer: Athena is prominent in a number of interesting myths and some of these have been made into movies. There are also videos about the Greek deities. I know of books just about Athena. Here is one:

Athena : A Biography , by Lee Hall, William Patrick (Editor), Hardcover - 288 pages (May 1997), Perseus Pr; ISBN: 0201870460; Dimensions (in inches): 1.06 x 9.48 x 6.35. A review is located at: Click here

There is a movie titled Athena listed but I know nothing about it. It is at: Click here

Question: Who is Athean?

Answer: Athena misspelled.

Question: What is Athena godess of?

Answer: Athena is goddess of wisdom.

Question: What were the tasks of Athena?

Answer: Athena was a goddess. Nobody but Zeus could make her do anything. She did not have tasks. She returned favors. She was the goddess of wisdom so if you behaved in a wise way, she rewarded you with good results.

Question: who was Athena and what was her role?

Answer: Athena is a civic goddess, wise in the ways of peace and the arts of war. She is one of the major Olympic deities that plays a major part in both the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer. She is often depicted wearing a helmet on her head and carrying a sword and shield. She is also called Pallas or Pallas Athena. As a statue she makes a very nice symbol of civic virtue.

Question: If Athena ever had to choose another God or Goddess to help her in a battle, who would it be?

Answer: Zeus is the only god more powerful, but you have to remember that each god or goddess had their special domain. If Athena needed a special domain she would go to the deity of that domain for help. Hera used Aphrodite in the Trojan war to put Zeus to sleep. Thetis used Hephaetus to make armor.

Question: what did she wear?

Answer: She alway wore what was fashionable at the time of the artist who depicted her. Often she had a helmet on her head. In come cases the aegis was a vest or like a shawl, while in other cases it was a shield.

Question: I need her life/timeline.

Answer: She came into existence about 27,000 years ago and she will continue in that same state forever as she is an immortal goddess. Her worhip was accepted by the Athenians in about 1500 BCE and they continued to worship her until about 400 AD.

Question: Did Athena Ever die?

Answer: A goddess is immortal.

Question: was she really born out of someones head

Answer: Just as ideas are born in your head, Athena, the goddess of wisdom was born from the head of Zeus.

Question: does athena exist?

Answer: For over 3,000 years there were sincere people who prayed to her because they thought she did. In the Odyssey book XX Athena herself says: 'O hard of belief! yea, many there be that trust in a weaker friend than I am, in one that is a mortal and knows not such a craft as mine; but I am a god, that preserve thee to the end, in all manner of toils...' If you can accept the truth of the Odyssey of Homer then you can accept the existence of Athena. An evangelical Christian once told me that the Odyssey is a work of fiction, unlike the Bible which is literally true in every respect. Actually both works have the same status in their respective cultures. It is religious intolerance for the person of one culture so deny the beliefs of a person of another culture. It is also disrespectful of the dead to deny their sincere beliefs and say, for example, they did not believe in Christ so they must be in Hell. The ancient Greeks could know nothing of Christ because Jesus Christ was born some hundred years after the Romans had taken over most of what remained of the Greek world. Religious intolerance is the source of great evil and is akin to racism and sexism. It simply means that what I do and believe is right and what you do and believe is wrong. It is more productive to find ways for people to consider the welfare of others. It would be my opinion that I would leave each person to decide upon the existance of any god or goddess they choose, and not persecute them for their decision. Furthermore, in line with the tendency of the classicist you could realise that Athena is the goddess of wisdom, and, in this respect, is the incarnation of wisdom. Your question would then resolve to "Does wisdom exist"? Our fond hope, of course, is that it does. But if one studies the history of religious persecution, one may sadly conclude that it does not.

Question: why was athena called the goddess of war?

Answer: Ares is the god of war, but he has an irrational and uncontrollable character. Ares results in chaos and disaster. Athena is the goddess of wisdom. When you go to war to defend your home, wife, and children, you do not want to leave the result to Ares. If you are organized, with a good strategy you will overcome the threat. If you go with Athena you will get the victory that you want and need. Athena is not the goddess of war, she is the goddess of the wisdom that brings victory in war.

Question: i need all pictures i can get on athena and any other pics to do with her

Answer: The Perseus Project lists 581 images of Athena. They are indexed at:Click here

Question: what did Athens expected to do?

Answer: Nothing was expected of Athena because she was a goddess. You went to Athena for favors. If she gave you a favor it would be in the realm of wisdom. You would ask for the favor with a prayer or sacrifice and you would thank her for the favor with a prayer or sacrifice. In between you would behave in a manner that was respectful to her.

Question: What is Athena's symbol or emblem?

Answer: The emblem that Athena wears is a Gorgon's head. It is actually the head of the Gorgon Medusa. But it is not her emblem. It is the emblem of Zeus. Athena wears the shield or Aegis of Zeus. Usually Athena is represented by the image of an owl.

Question: how many children doe she have

Answer: Athena is an eternal virgin with no children. She does like children though, and gives women the wisdom to care for them.

Question: brooch with face of Athena.

Answer: This was a common theme for Victorian jewelry.

Question: timeline

Answer: The classical myth says that she was born from the head of Zeus, and that would make Zeus the older deity. But what this story probably means that the cult of Zeus took over the Cult of Athena. This must have taken place before 1500 BCE and the Trojan war because Homer has Zeus supreme. But it is not clear that Zeus was supreme in the Minoan culture. It is possible that the cult of Zeus took over the cult of Athena when the mainland Greeks conquered the Minoans about 1600 BCE. This would have been the time when she jumped out of Zeus' head. But she may have come to Crete from Africa many years before. The Minoan culture began about 3500 BCE which is about when Athena came from Africa. She probably came from the area in Africa in what is now Tunisia. I have looked for evidence of Athena in the ancient rock art of the Sahara, but I have not found anything. Athena seems to have developed from a bird goddess and that is how she is represented in Crete so that is a hint for the African images. Bird goddess images have been found in Europe dating to 6000 BCE. Before that the goddess images are fairly uniformly of the fat venus type. These have been traced back to 25,000 BCE. She may have been a snake goddess as well.

Question: how do u know all this mumbo jumbo

Answer: Athena, the goddess of wisdom guides me. She guides me to a fine collection of books and on-line resources.

Question: How did Pallas Athena get the "Pallas" part of her name?

Answer: Myth states she took the name from Pallas the giant Pallas she slew and flayed and used his skin to protect her. Robert Graves suggests that Pallas refers to a passionate sea creature, the porpose, that served as a totem for royalty in Greece, and Pallas is a royal adjective like 'queen'. It makes sense to kill a porpose and flay it because its skin is tough. Pallas was the husband of Styx, the river, and the notion of a porpose married to a river makes sense. But it is also possible that the word 'pallas' is a Minoan word that has not been translated. But it seems to be related to the word 'pelt'. The Indo-European root is '3b. pel-, pelə-, plē-', 'to wrap, cover; cloth; fell, pelt' This relates 'Pallas' to the aegis that Athena wears which is a shield of protection.

Question: how was athena born

Answer: The most current story is that she sprang full grown and fully armed from the head of Zeus after his head was hit with an axe. There is a picture of this remarkable event at: Click here. Usually she is not admitted of any mother, but in Pseudo-Apollodorus Metis is given as her mother. The quote is here: Click here,

There is another older story that she was born on the edge of Lake Triton (or Tritonis) in Libya. To the Greeks Libya was all of North Africa. Where Lake Triton was is not clear but it seems that where Tunisia is today seems likely. Robert Graves states the following: "...,she is revealed as Athene, the Goddess of Wisdom, who was born on the shores of Lake Triton in Libya and seems to have been originally, before her monstrous rebirth from Father Zeus's head, the Libyan Triple Goddess Neith, whom the Greeks called Lamia, or Libya.

And consider this quote from Pausanias Description of Greece 1.14.6 "But when I saw that the statue of Athena had blue eyes I found out that the legend about them is Libyan. For the Libyans have a saying that the Goddess is the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, and for this reason has blue eyes like Poseidon."

Question: Where does Athena live?

Answer: On top of Mount Olympus in a palace visible only to worthy believers.

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Festivals of Athena

Question: What was the Great Panathenia like?

Answer: "In no civic festival do women play a more prominent role than in the Panathenaia. Young women's ritual cries and choral dances were an established freature of the pannychis the night before the great procession. Women were responsible or the creation and presentation to Athena of the peplos with a tapestry portraying her victory over the Giants. The peplos, which was offered as a birthday gift to the goddess, was the goal and principle feature of the ceremony. The warp for the peplos was set on the loom by the priestesses of Athena, along with the arrhephoroi the young girls selected for special service to the goddess. The arrhephoroi were considered sufficiently important to be housed, during the term of their service, near the temple of Athenia Polias on the Acropolis. Once the warp was set on the loom, the peplos tapestry itself was woven by a speciallly chosen group of maidens from aristocratic families, the ergastinai. Some of the ergastinai, along with other aristocratic women, might also serve as kanephoroi, bearers of the baskets of barley in which the knives used for sacrifice were hidden, both in the pannychis held the night before the procession and in the procession itself. " Worshiping Athena p. 79

Question: What were the festivals like?

Answer: Sort of a combination barbecue and Easter Parade. Festivals provided a break from the work routine. There were no weekends to do this. Except for festivals women stayed at home.

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What is Myth?

Question: is mythology a kind of tale?what is it exactly apartfrom insemination among gods and goddesses

Answer: Every religion has literature that documents the spiritual experiences of its members. But it is common for a religion to declare that their literature is true while the literature of another religion is false. This is done to support the faith of the people who are least able to understand the complexities of spirituality. Religion has a strong moral benefit and a strong belief is seen to produce a good moral result. But this practice tends to alienate cultures who are then at odds over basic beliefs. A more tolerant appoach might be to try to understand the logic and sense of different belief systems. One might, in this way, transcend the various belief systems, and come to a better understanding of one's own spirituality.

Material is called myth when it belongs to someone else's religion. The Greek myths were thought to be spiritually true by the ancient Greeks who thought they recorded the nature of the Universe as they knew it. This material has been relegated to myth by the Christian church who feels that the Bible contains the truth and not the spiritual stories of the Greeks. Plato would have considered the Bible a myth. It is better not to be involved in this type of religious politics. It would be better to understand that the Greeks thought that their stories were true, and that we should look at them to find what truth we can. In this way we can raise our own sense of spirituality.

One complication of this scenario is that the Greeks were particularly good at telling stories that were significant and captivating. The result is that these stories have infused our culture, and our subconscious. Some of the spirituality has been stripped from the Greek myths so they can be better appreciated as stories. But the spirituallity can be recovered. In the process you learn more about your subconscious and your spirituality.

The word 'myth' is probably related to the word 'muse'. The ancient Greeks distinguished myth as beeing poetry and the ancient Greek myths are invariably contained in poems. This may be because they predate written documents and poems are aeasier to remember than prose ones.

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Miscellaneous

Question: Tell me the story of how Athena made an olive tree grow on the Acropolis and so became the patrnoss of Athens.

Answer: an image of Athena of Athena with her olive tree is at: Click here. An original source of the story is: Click here

A discussion of the history of the olive tree is at: Click here

Another discussion of the olive tree: Click here

Olive the Greek History You Ever Need to Know! Click here

Question: Who was Athena compeating against in the contest to see who would be the patron of Athens? What is the story?

Answer: Athena competed against Poseidon. Poseidon struck his trident and out came a horse. The hole he produced can still be seen. Athena planted an olive tree. Her tree actually grew on the Acropolis until historic times. Her tree was judged more valuable than the horse so she won the honor.

Question: Did Athena ever help any imortal people? If so can I hear the stories?

Answer: The deities were often helping each other because each was assigned a realm and a deity could not act outside of that realm. If a deity needed something in another realm they had to go to the deity of that other realm to get it. Hera did not like the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon and she sent Athena to stop it:

"The son of Peleus was furious, and his heart within his shaggy breast was divided whether to draw his sword, push the others aside, and kill the son of Atreus, or to restrain himself and check his anger. While he was thus in two minds, and was drawing his mighty sword from its scabbard, Athena came down from heaven (for Hera had sent her in the love she bore to them both), and seized the son of Peleus by his yellow hair, visible to him alone, for of the others no man could see her. Achilles turned in amaze, and by the fire that flashed from her eyes at once knew that she was Athena. "Why are you here," said he, "daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus? To see the pride of Agamemnon, son of Atreus? Let me tell you- and it shall surely be- he shall pay for this insolence with his life." And Athena said, "I come from heaven, if you will hear me, to bid you stay your anger. Hera has sent me, who cares for both of you alike. Cease, then, this brawling, and do not draw your sword; rail at him if you will, and your railing will not be vain, for I tell you- and it shall surely be- that you shall hereafter receive gifts three times as splendid by reason of this present insult. Hold, therefore, and obey."

"Goddess," answered Achilles, "however angry a man may be, he must do as you two command him. This will be best, for the gods ever hear the prayers of him who has obeyed them."

He stayed his hand on the silver hilt of his sword, and thrust it back into the scabbard as Athena bade him. Then she went back to Olympus among the other gods, and to the house of aegis-bearing Zeus."

Question: Did Athena (even though she stayed a virgin) ever fall in love with another god or imortal person?

Answer: Athena's passion never overcame her reason, but she did love anyone who was intelligent and could act that way.

Question: What is your favorite story about Athena?

Answer: I like the following speach to Odysseus:

"Then answered the goddess, grey-eyed Athene: 'O hard of belief! yea, many there be that trust even in a weaker friend than I am, in one that is a mortal and knows not such craft as mine; but I am a god, that preserve thee to the end, in all manner of toils. And now I will tell thee plainly; even should fifty companies of mortal men compass us about eager to slay us in battle, even their kine shouldst thou drive off and their brave flocks. But let sleep in turn come over thee; to wake and to watch all night, this too is vexation of spirit; and soon shalt thou rise from out of thy troubles.'"

Question: Was Poseidon angry with Athena after she became the goddess of Athens and not him? Did he ever try to kill her?

Answer: Poseidon was angry, but it is ridiculous to be angry at a goddess. Only Zeus had the power to destroy another deity. Poseidon took his anger out on the Athenians. He caused a bad flood to occur.

Question: Why did Athena want Medusa dead?

Answer: Athena was jealous of her power and wanted the power for herself. She got the power by sewing the head of Medusa on her aegis. This is the story told by the classical Greeks anyway. In reality Medusa was a queen or general who lead and army in North Africa against another General named Perseus. Perseus defeated Medusa and had her beheaded. The mask on the aegis is actually the mask of horror that Athena herself wears when she has to do battle. The classical Medusa story just explains how the mask got on the aegis, but the mask on the aegis is much older than the story. Actually Athena did not want Medusa dead, but she died because she did not use Athena's powers of intelligence and guile.

Question: what was athena's symbol

Answer: An owl.

Question: Who were Athena's enemies and friends?

Answer: Athena's antagonists are Ares the God of War and his accomplises, his sister Eris (Discord) and Strife her son, And the Goddess of War, Enyo, and with her, Terror, Trembling, and Panic. She also opposes sloth, ignorance, and forgetfulness. Her friends are cunning and intelligence, industry, and patience. Some stories have Metis (prudence) as her mother, but she was always Athena's friend. Memnosyne (memory) is also a friend as is education. A goddess really has no enemies, just forces to strive against.

Question: I asked a question yesterday regarding a symbol for Athena. To be more precise I would like to know if there is a single symbol that represents her name, not unlike a Egyptian hieroglyph?

Answer: A symbol for an owl will do it.

Question: I am doing a term paper on the art of Athena. Many Greek myths vary greatly as well as the artistic interpretation of them. This is the basis of my paper. I recognize that the photographs are restricted to students at your college, but i was wondering if I could get access to them. If this is not permitted maybe I could get a list of the resources for the photographs so therefore I could find them myself. I understand if you can not distribute this information but I thought it would not hurt to ask.

Answer: This is a good paper subject. Through this site and the links it references, you should have plenty of material. This site is not a college site, but I may not publish photos that I have no rights to. Check the bibliography at: Click here for references. There are a number of books just on Athena so this is a fairly large topic and you will not be able to cover everything. I will entertain requests for a specific image, but not a request as general as yours.

Question: I need some information on Athena and her use of magic in the form of shapeshifting.

Answer: There are several instances of this in the Odyssey. But it is not magic when a goddess does it for herself. Magic occurs when you get a goddess to do something for you. She has this ability because she is a goddess. You lack this ability because you are a mortal. The ability to perform miracles (magic) is a proof of divine nature.

Question: what was athene the goddess of?

Answer: Athena is the Greek goddess of wisdom. She was also the goddess of industries and prudent intelligence in war. She favored the side that used strategy and guile. She was not a goddess of warriors. But her strategy led to victory, so she was a goddess of victory in war. Industries required intelligence too. There is also a directory for information about Athena at: Click here

Question: Do you have any photos of Athena, greek goddess of wisdom?

Answer: I have not been able to take any photos of Athena because she has not presented herself to me in any recognizable form. She is a goddess, after all. But the Ancient Greeks did draw pictures of what they thought she looked like. Click on the links above to see the pictures.

Question: ATHENA BEINGING BORN OUT OF ZEUS'S HEAD, DESCIRBE THE PAINTING AND COMPARE IT'S TREATMENT OF ITS THEME TO THOSE FOUND IN SURVIVING LITERARY ACCOUNTS OF THE SAME THEME. WHAT DOES THE PAINTING TELL US ABOUT SOCEITY OR RELIGON OF ITS TIME?

Answer: They did not want Athena (wisdom) to be dependent on birth from a woman.

Question: how can we use what this goddess did today?

Answer: Even today Athena will help you if you go to school and study hard.

Question: Where was the temple of Athena and who built it and why?

Answer: The Parthenon in Athens is the most famous temple built for Athena. It was built on ths Acropolis in Athens. The Athenians built it to thank Athena for her help in defeating the Persians in 479 BCE.

Question: Why did Athene hate the Trojans so much?

Answer: The Trojans chose to keep Helen with Paris even though he stole her from Menelaus. He was able to do this because he chose Aprhrodite over Athena in the Judgement of Paris. He did not make a wise choice. When you choose it is always best to go with Athena, the goddess of wisdom. When you choose with passion (Aphrodite) you usually get into trouble.

Question: Do you have any sculptures of Athena and information on the sculptures

Answer: Sculptures of Athena

Question: how did they get ther names

Answer: As you might suspect the names of the gods and goddesses are extremely important. There is the suggestion that the name reveals the source of the deity. Robert Graves suggests that Anna and Athena are related names. Both words may be related to the sumerian word for heaven. This suggests that Athena may have come to Greece from Sumer. Athena's connection to North Africa is stonger, though. The name 'Athena' may also be a word in the Minoan Language.

Question: What are some of the ways that Athena helps Odysseus in the Odessey? I need some of those examples and quotes from teh book for a project.

Answer: There, all night through, wrapped in a fleece of wool, he (Telemachus) meditated in his heart upon the journey that Athene had showed him.

Then Athene shed on him (Telemachus) a wondrous grace, and all the people marvelled at him as he came.

'...There are many ships, new and old, in seagirt Ithaca; of these I will choose out the best for thee, and we will quickly rig her and launch her on the broad deep.' So spake Athene, daughter of Zeus, and Telemachus made no long tarrying, when he had heard the voice of the goddess.

Then the goddess, grey-eyed Athene, turned to other thoughts. In the likeness of Telemachus she went all through the city, and stood by each one of the men and spake her saying, and bade them gather at even by the swift ship.

She (Athene) went on her way to the house of divine Odysseus; and there she shed sweet sleep upon the wooers and made them distraught in their drinking, and cast the cups from their hands.

Pallas Athene led the way quickly, and he (Telemachus) followed hard in the steps of the goddess. Now when they had come down to the ship and to the sea, they found the long-haired youths of the company on the shore;

There are many other examples, but one of the most famous examples follows: "Then they twain sprang up, Odysseus and his renowned son, and set to carry within the helmets and the bossy shields, and the sharp-pointed spears; and before them Pallas Athene bare a golden cresset and cast a most lovely light. Thereon Telemachus spake to his father suddenly:

'Father, surely a great marvel is this that I behold with mine eyes; meseems, at least, that the walls of the hall and the fair main-beams of the roof and the cross-beams of pine, and the pillars that run aloft, are bright as it were with flaming fire. Verily some god is within, of those that hold the wide heaven.'

Question: How did the Greeks worship Athena? Pray? Invoke the blessing? Were there processions involved? Games? Contests? Offering? Sacrifices?

Answer: All this and more. They built temples to Athena, and they used wisdom to solve problems. Homer, in the Iliad Book VI describes the worship of Athena by the Trojans:

'When they reached the temple of Athena, lovely Theano, daughter of Cisseus and wife of Antenor, opened the doors, for the Trojans had made her priestess of Athena. The women lifted up their hands to the goddess with a loud cry, and Theano took the robe to lay it upon the knees of Athena, praying the while to the daughter of great Jove. "Holy Athena," she cried, "protectress of our city, mighty goddess, break the spear of Diomedes and lay him low before the Scaean gates. Do this, and we will sacrifice twelve heifers that have never yet known the goad, in your temple, if you will have pity upon the town, with the wives and little ones If the Trojans." Thus she prayed, but Pallas Athena granted not her prayer.'

In Book II of the Odyssey we witness this prayer: "Then Telemachus, going far apart to the shore of the sea, washed his hands in the grey sea water, and prayed unto Athene, saying: 'Hear me, thou who yesterday didst come in thy godhead to our house, and badest me go in a ship across the misty seas, to seek tidings of the return of my father that is long gone: but all this my purpose do the Achaeans delay, and mainly the wooers in the naughtiness of their pride.'"

In Book III Nestor offers the following prayer to Athena: "Nay be gracious, queen, and vouchsafe a goodly fame to me, even to me and to my sons and to my wife revered. And I in turn will sacrifice to thee a yearling heifer, broad of brow, unbroken, which man never yet hath led beneath the yoke. Such an one will I offer to thee, and gild her horns with gold.

In Book IV Penelope offers the following prayer: 'Hear me, child of Zeus, lord of the aegis, unwearied maiden! If ever wise Odysseus in his halls burnt for thee fat slices of the thighs of heifer or of sheep, these things, I pray thee, now remember, and save my dear son, and ward from him the wooers in the naughtiness of their pride.'

Here is an image of a girl with an offering: Click here

Question: Can u recommend a painting painted before the 1950's, which would best represent athena ie her symbolisis, her attributes?

Answer: I prefer ones by the ancient Greeks. The following is a good one: Click here

Question: where can i find stories about Athena in battle?

Answer: The Iliad by Homer deals with Athena during battle. Athena battling the giants is illustrated: Click here

Question: Medusa

Answer: Click on the menu directory below then click on Medusa.

Question: who worshipped her?

Answer: Athena's worship was very extensive in ancient Greece. There were almost as many temples for Athena as there were for Zeus. The worship of the dozen higher deities of the pantheon, including Athena, was more formal because these deities were not involved in daily activities, as was Hestia, Demeter, and Dionysius. But their worship was quite widespread.

Question: Why does Athena favor Odysseus in the Odyssey? Why does she help him out?

Answer: Athena favors Odysseus because he is wise. The goddess of wisdom always favors the wise. She still does.

Question: whats does she look like?

Answer: Click on the links above to see the pictures.

Question: Why the hell don't you people put more pictures of the parthenon huh?

Answer: Click on the Menu Directory below and click on Architecture.

Question: how di athena die(be specific)

Answer: Athena is an immortal goddess and will never die.

Question: What is the aegis?

Answer: The aegis is a protective shield that Athena bears. Sometimes it is worn as a vest, sometimes as a shield, and sometimes it is draped over her arm. It seems to date from when the only shield that a soldier carried was a skin. Athena seems to have started as a war goddess in the Sahara region of Africa and probably wore the skin as protection. When she was transferred to Athens by Theseus, a shield would have been more current. At that time a figure-eight shield was current. Later a round shield was used. This is often described as the shield of Zeus, but it is recognized by the presence of Mudusa's head in the center. The head of Medusa is actually her head according to myth, but it seems more likely that it was originally the symbolic head of a protective goddess.

Question: Who is Athena?

Answer: Read above.

Question: How old was Athene when she died?

Answer: Athena is an immortal goddess and is as alive today as she ever was.

Question: what is athenas domain

Answer: Wisdom and industrial and domestic arts.

Question: What present-day human best represents Athene?

Answer: Any wise person will do. Maria vos Savant would like to.

Question: what is athena's role in the odessey?

Answer: Athena demonstrates that one must be very wise to survive a dangerous adventure.

Question: is athena mentioned in any literature books?

Answer: In 1960 a book titled Good Reading that prepared a list of the 100 most Significant Books of Literature. Of these Athena is mentioned in:

Question: is athena mentioned an any music? for example plays?

Answer: Offenbach wrote "La Belle Hellene" and I believe Athena makes an appearance.

Question: is athena ever mentioned in science? for example pyscology

Answer: It is not uncommon to personify science as a woman derived from Athena, the common approach is to extract all deities out of Science.

Question: what was the role of women

Answer: Women were the priestesses of Athena. And women participated in the festivals of Athena.

Question: Why was Athena portrayed in such a way in ancient Greek art?

Answer: The military attire suited Athena because in war wisdom was a matter of life and death. Her aegis was a symbol of the protection of the deities and the medusa head, the symbol of Zeus, struck fear in her enemies.

Question: Isn't Athea also referred to as Venus if so how come you don' mention that?

Answer: Venus is the Roman goddess of Love. This site is about Greek women.

Question: How does Athena restrained Axhilleus Anger in the Iliad?

Answer: Early in the Iliad Athena trains Achilles' anger. You should read the Iliad to find what Homer says, but remember that she is the goddess of wisdom. The quote is "Athena came down from heaven (for Hera had sent her in the love she bore to them both), and seized the son of Peleus by his yellow hair,..."

Question: Who are Athena's half-brothers and sisters?

Answer: Any of the children of Zeus. By Hera Zeus had Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus. By Leto Zeus had Apollo and Artemis. By Demeter Zeus had Persephone. By Maia Zeus had Hermes. By Dione Zeus had Aphrodite. By Semele Zeus had Dionysus. Zeus also had numerous mortal children. By Io Zeus had Epaphus. By Danae Zeus had Perseus. By Alcmene Zeus had Hercules. By Leda Zeus had Helen and Pollux. By Europa Zeus had Minos and Rhadamantus.

Question: Hi. I am looking for a quote in 'The Qdyssey' that illustrated Athene's cunning. It's quite well known, but I can only remember a bit of it ...Even a God would be hard put to it...! Athena- there is more before this. Thanks

Answer: How about this one that illustrates her power: "Then answered the goddess, grey-eyed Athene: 'O hard of belief! yea, many there be that trust even in a weaker friend than I am, in one that is a mortal and knows not such craft as mine; but I am a god, that preserve thee to the end, in all manner of toils. And now I will tell thee plainly; even should fifty companies of mortal men compass us about eager to slay us in battle, even their kine shouldst thou drive off and their brave flocks. But let sleep in turn come over thee; to wake and to watch all night, this too is vexation of spirit; and soon shalt thou rise from out of thy troubles.'"

Question: does athena exist now...and if so what is her real name?

Answer: Athena is an immortal goddess who will never die. Athena has always been her real name. Robert Graves suggests that Ahtena may mean Ath-enna which is a form of Anna or Queen. The inversion of Ath-enna or Enna-ath becomes Neith. Neith is one of the earliest attested of the great goddesses of Egypt, whose cult can be dated to the period before the unification and the First Dynasty (From the Sands of The Sahara Ancient Kellis and Its Texts)

Question: What does Athena control?

Answer: Wisdom or crafts.

Question: What was the significance of Athena's relationship with Odysseus?

Answer: Odysseus used wisdom to accomplish his goals.

Question: what myth is Athene most famous for?

Answer: Her involvement in the Trojan war.

Question: In how many ways did Athene help Odysseus in The Odyssey?

Answer: Athene provided Odysseus with wisdom.

Question: pictures of ships

Answer: Click on the Menu Dierctory below and click on transportation.

Question: What role did Athene play in the odyssey?

Answer: Athena was the salvation of Odysseus.

Question: What ways does Athena represent war?

Answer: Athena represents strategy, intelligence, spying, and similar techniques that result in victory in war. Rarely are wars won by the skills of Ares, brute force, fear, strife, frenzy, etc.

Question: What are some ways that Athena is depicted in today's modern culture?

Answer: The depiction of Athena has not changed that much:

Question: what is the place where they do the plays at

Answer: The Theater of Dionysus at athens.

Question: What does thewomen mean to the epic the Iliad

Answer: In the Iliad, The mothers of both heroes, Achilles and Hector, are mentioned. The wife of Hector and the lovers of Achilles are also mentioned. Throughout all the goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite play a prominent role.

Question: Why does Athena favor such mortals as odysseus or telemachus?

Answer: Athena favors the wise.

Question: Can you give me a couple of quotes from the iliad that show that athena had wisdom and nobility

Answer: "The chiefs about the son of Atreus chose their men and marshalled them, while Athena went among them holding her priceless aegis that knows neither age nor death. From it there waved a hundred tassels of pure gold, all deftly woven, and each one of them worth a hundred oxen. With this she darted furiously everywhere among the hosts of the Achaeans, urging them forward, and putting courage into the heart of each, so that he might fight and do battle without ceasing."

"Stranger though he was, he knew no fear on finding himself single-handed among so many, but challenged them to contests of all kinds, and in each one of them was at once victorious, so mightily did Athena help him."

Question: I am writing a paper on the role of women in Greek society, I was wondering if you could tell me about Athena's role in The Odyssey. Is there a sense of certain feminine virtues necessary to the health of the state? Thanks so much.

Athena was accepted as a fact by the ancient Greeks but the Greek men were not comfotable with the fact that she was a women. The myth of Athena being born from the head of Zeus seemed to satisfy their notion that wisdom came from the heads of men. Further, her absolute virginity helped to separate her from the wiles of women.

Athena probably comes from a time (and place) where women were wise. The myths of her birth in Tunisia suggest that a culture in that area may have had wise women. Though the women of classical Athens are often assigned to a lower status and mental ability, the myths of ancient Greece contain reference to a number of very intelligent women including Clytemnestra, Penelope, Antigone, Medea, and Cassandra. In addition there were talented historic women as well such as Sappho, Diotima, and Aspasia. Of these women Medea seems to gain the most power from her wisdom, but she cannot be easily compared to Athena. It does seem as though Medea is the best model for the wise women because she is often referred to as a sorceress. It is often claimed that male resentment demonized the intelligent women and turned them into witches and tools of the Devil. In the play "Medea" this very resentment seems at play.

The best insight into Athena in the Odyssey seems to be in Book XIII. The Odyssey is not really about issues of the state, but rather is about the adjustment of an individual to the reality around him. In Book XIII Athena says to Odysseus: "Crafty must though be, and knavish, who would outdo thee in all manner of guile, even is a it were a god encountered thee. " It is plain here that wisdom is not the book learning rationality that one learns in school, but rather the craft of every day survival which depends upon deceit and spying. Athena is really a master of the material presented by Sun Tzu in his book "The Art of War". The Greeks had a hard time associating this with feminine virtues.

Question: Why was Athena potrayed as a young woman, when elderly woman should have more acknowledges?

Answer: Greek men did not associate knowledge with women at all but they accepted the fact that Athena was a woman. They preferred beautiful women so they portrayed Athena as beautiful. The intelligence associated with women was attached more to Hecate or perhaps Artemis.

Question: how many was'r Athena was in

Answer: You could say truthfully that Athena prticipated in every war that was won by Greeks.

Question: Who was the sculptor of a hege statue of the godess athena

Answer: Phidias sculpted the huge statue of Athena that appeared in the Parthenon.

Question: how does athena help greece

Answer: Wisdom provides victory in war and economic prosperity in peace.

Question: Do you have any information on the statue "victory in the hands of athena".

Answer: Your title fits the famous "Athena Parthenos" which was the statue of Athena in the Parthenon. There are many copies of this statue, but not all of them include Nike. About this statue there is much information including: Click here

Question: was osysseus real?

Answer: The ancient Greeks considered Odysseus real but today we find some aspects of his story difficult to believe. For this reason he is referred to as a mythological character. No archeological evidence has been yet found to support his existence, but many details of the Odyssey have been verified.

Question: why is athena cosidered to be odesseus main femail

Answer: Penelope was his main female. She was his goal and inspiration. But Athena provided the wisdom required to get to his goal. Penelope was his queen while Athena was his protecting goddess.

Question: what is gorgon

Answer: The three gorgons were goddesses of death. They were a trippled Hecate. They were believed to have snakes for hair and their gaze could turn a person into stone. The head of a Gorgon was often used as a instrument to frighten.

Question: Can you explain some of athena's adventures

Answer: To get home Odysseus needed to be wise. As long as he was wise he had Athena with him. When he got home safely it meant Athena had been with him all along.

Question: when was this site started

Answer: November, 1997.

Queston: What did she wear?

Answer: Almost all women at that time wore a peplos or a chiton. But Athena also wore a helmet on her head, tilted upward so you could see her face. She either carried a shield with a Gorgon head, or wore a vest with a Gorgon head. She also commonly carried a spear in her hand.

Question: What is the symbol on her aegis.

Answer: The actual head of the Gorgon Medusa.

Question: was there any signifigance to her bow?

Answer: She did not use a bow, but she used a spear. This she used to point with and deflect things.

Question: did she have a husband

Answer: No. She remains a virgin maiden.

Question: Do you have informatio on or pretaing to, Black figured Lekythos Achilles and Ajax playing a board game with Athena standing between'

Answer: There are a number of variations of this image in existance:

But I do not find the one you want.

Question: athena's family tree

Answer: Uranus mated with Gaea to produce Cronus and Rhea. Cronus and Rhea mated to produce Zeus and Athena sprang full grown from the head of Zeus.

Question: What are Athena's Powers?

Answer: As with all goddesses, she had the power of prophecy, the ability the fly through the air, and the ability to change her shape. But she had the realm of wisdom and skill. She had the ability to enhance a person's power by instilling in them good thoughts and wisdom.

Question: do the features of athenas face conform to the mathematical equation that the greeks devised for beautyn

Answer: Athena had a beautiful face, so any useful formulas would have to fit. But I do not know which formulas you are referring to.

Question: what was athene's role in the creation of the world?

Answer: The Greeks believed that the world created the gods and goddesses and not that the deities created the world.

Question: What did Zeus do this The Greek religion?

Answer: Zeus was the patriarch, the god head, a god more powerful than all of the rest combined. He was the leader of the gods.

Question: Do you have any stories about Athena, if you do may I read one?

Answer: Some excellent stories about Athena are in the Iliad which you can read online at: /click Here

Question: Does athena have any special power.

Answer: The realm of Athena is wisdom and craft, and all her special powers relate to these areas.

Question: Is there a picture of Athena's symbol?

Answer:

Question: Does Pegasus have anything to do woth Athena? Do you have pictures of Pegasus and vases of sculptures with/on Pegasus?

Answer: Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.4.1, "For Athena, they say, was the divinity who gave most help to Bellerophontes, and she delivered to him Pegasus, having herself broken in and bridled him. "

Images:

Question: How was Athena worshipped in Greece and in Rome, as Minerva?

Answer: See above or search on the word "worship"

Question: How does Athena affect our world today?

Answer: Just as Odysseus needed wisdom to survive his journey, so do we. But our journey is on spaceship earth through the infinite galaxy.

Question: does athena have any brothers or sisters

Answer: Because of the nature of her birth this question is difficult to answer. But essentially Zeus is her father and Poseidon and Hades are her uncles. She is treated as the eldest daughter with Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hermes, Ares, Hephaestus, and Hestia as her younger siblings. But geneologically these are half siblings except for Hestia, who is her aunt. In some situations she is on equal terms with Hera, Aphrodite, and Artemis.

Question: In the Book the Iliad whose side was Athena on, the Trojans or the Spartans

Answer: Opposite the Trojans. The opposition included many places besides Sparta. In fact the leader of the opposition, King Agamemnon, was from Mycenae. The opposition is sometimes referred to as Achaens, Argives, or Danai.

Question: How does Athena affect our education today?

Answer: Athena is the personification of wisdom, the goal of education.

Question: why was athena so involved with odysseus and his life?

Answer: Wisdom is very important for survival.

Question: Did Atheana have big tits\

Answer: Athena can have any size tits she wants. She can appear to you more beautiful than the most beautiful women in the world, or she can appear as and ugly old woman, or a man, or a bird.

Question: If i choose to worship Athena, but i am not a virgin....do u think she would look down upon that and reject my worship?? This is very iportant to me.

Answer: The virginity of your body is the concern of Artemis not Athena. And she only wants you to be a virgin before you are married. Athena is concerned about the purity of your thoughts. For her your thoughts are pure if they result in wisdom and truth. This is different from the Christian notion that pure thoughts are free from sexual reference. Athena wants your conclusions to be unaffected by Aphrodite but not necessarily outside of Aphrodite's realm.

Question: What was Athena's adventure?

Answer: Because an adventure is wisdom building activity, Athena goes on every adventure.

Question: What is the reality of Athena?

Answer: Wisdom is a real and important influence in our lives. We learn from the Odyssey the importance of wisdom for survival.

Question: What is the most famous story of athena?

Answer: The Odyssey is pretty famous and it is a story of Athena.

Question: What is the story about how Athens was named after Athena after the Athenians better gift to her?

Answer: Athena competed against Poseidon. Poseidon struck his trident and out came a horse. The hole he produced can still be seen. Athena planted an olive tree. Her tree actually grew on the Acropolis until historic times. Her tree was judged more valuable than the horse so she won the honor.

Question: who was athena related to, as in brothers and sisters?

Answer: Because she was born from the head of Zeus she had no siblings, but Hera, Aphrodite, and Artemis, acted like her siblings.

Question: athena's help to Herakles please elaborate

Answer: There are many images of heros such as Herakles with Athana standing by that remind the Greeks that the key to victory is wise strategy. In Pausanius, 9.11.1, is this quote: "They (the Thebans) show also the tomb of the children of Heracles by Megara. Their account of the death of these is in no way different from that in the poems of Panyassis and of Stesichorus of Himera. But the Thebans add that Heracles in his madness was about to kill Amphitryon as well, but before he could do so he was rendered unconscious by the blow of the stone. Athena, they say, threw at him this stone, which they name Chastiser." Athena had literally knocked some sense (wisdom) into Heracles by hitting him in the head with a stone.

Question: Did she have a festival in her honor

Answer: Yes she did. The Panathenea was celebratd around the 28th day of the month of Hekatombaion for as long as seven days. The festival involved processions and sacrifices and every forth year an athletic competition.

Question: What all did Athena do for Odysseus and his family?In the movie The Odyssey what did she say to Odysseus on his ship?

Answer: Athena was the goddess of wisdom and craft and wisdom and craft is what she provided to Odysseus. Athena did not go near Odysseus when he was in his ship for fear of Poseidon who was angry with Odysseus.

Question: is athena the godess of art

Answer: Athena is the goddess of craft, but the ancient greeks did not know the difference between art and craft.

Question: what does athena have to do with the parthenon in athens?

Answer: The Parthenon was built as a temple of Athena. It was built for Athena as an expression of thanks for her help in the wars against Persia.

Question: her life

Answer: She is an immortal goddess so her life includes details of her relation with every one of her worshippers. Some highlights are listed above.

Question: What is her phsical appearance?

Answer: She is a head taller than the average man, and she has the appearanceof a beautiful woman, almost as beautiful as Aphrodite. You might think you would recognize her easily by her symbols, and owl, aegis with medusa, or corinthian helmet, but she can change her shape and appear as any person or bird. You have to recognize her by her wisdom.

Question: When Athena helped Bellerophon beome the master of Pegasus, who did Bellerophon kill?

Answer: The Chimera, the Solymi, Amazons, and the bravest Lycians.

Question: what did athena do to help the mortals?

Answer: Athena provided wisdom to be victorious in wars and craft so they could be productive in peace.

Question: was Athena married

Answer: Never.

Question: Did she have any kids, i fso what were their names/

Answer: Athena never has children, but if she had Nike would have been one of them. Apollodorus relates that Athena was the mother of Erichthonius by Hephaestus without her ever having sex or becoming pregnant.

Question: when was athena an ally to mortals?

Answer: Whenever they were crafty and wise.

Question: What gift did the Athenians present to Athena at the Panathenia festival

Answer: A new, handwoven peplos.

Question: What is an Aegis???

This peculiar object is sometimes described as a vest, and sometimes as a shield. It is a skin with the real head of the Gorgon Medusa on it. Because it is the real head of the Gorgon Medusa, Athena has the power to turn people into stone. The Aegis was a shield in any event because it protected whoever wore it.

The real question is what it might have been. Most speculation points to the fact that before shields were used, skins of animals were used. This image of Athena harks back to that earlier time. But another possibility is that it is a remnant of when Athena was a bird goddess. It may be what remains of her wings. It looks like a wing in many images of Athena.

Question: I'm doing a play at my school about greek gods and godess and I'm gonna be Athena, I want to know if she really came out of Zeus head or from somewhere else.

Answer: It stands to reason that wisdom comes from a person's head and that the best wisdom, ideal wisdom, comes from the head of the ideal person. Zeus is the ideal person and Athena is the personification of ideal wisdom and thus but come from Zeus's head.

Question: What is Athena's plan in The Odyssey?

Answer: To foster wisdom.

Question: Pictures of Athena's symbols.

Answer: For a vase painting with a lot of them: Click here. In this picture you can see a wonderful snaky aegis: Click here. Here Athena wears the aegis as a vest with the gorgon's head in the middle: Click here

Question: Is Athena gay?

Answer: As the goddess of wisdom she was immune to the influences of Aphrodite and was attracted by neither men or women. But she herself was quite attractive and many were attracted to her. She was even the mother of a child without ever having sex.

Question: what was her roman name

Answer: Minerva.

Question: I read somewhere that Zeus punished his pregnant wife to his head, where she bore Athena. Is that at all true?

Hesiod, in the Theogony says:

(ll. 886-900) Now Zeus, king of the gods, made Metis his wife first, and she was wisest among gods and mortal men. But when she was about to bring forth the goddess bright-eyed Athene, Zeus craftily deceived her with cunning words and put her in his own belly, as Earth and starry Heaven advised. For they advised him so, to the end that no other should hold royal sway over the eternal gods in place of Zeus; for very wise children were destined to be born of her, first the maiden bright-eyed Tritogeneia, equal to her father in strength and in wise understanding; but afterwards she was to bear a son of overbearing spirit, king of gods and men. But Zeus put her into his own belly first, that the goddess might devise for him both good and evil.

Question: how is Athena

Answer: Athena is very busy as always. People generally recognize the value of wisdom, but today wisdom is more important than even.

Comment: Hey!!
> I finished the report last weekend!!
> You people never reply fast enough.  That is why I never try and ask
> you people a question.  Because the answer always comes way to late
> and by that time I don't need the answer any more.  Oh and that is
> wrong.
> Uranus mated with Gaea to produce the Titans.  Oceanus and Tethys
> mated to have Metis.  Rhea and Cronus mated and had Zues.  Metis and
> Zues then had Athena.  Athena came out of Zues's head because he had
> swallowed Metis bacause someone told Zues that the second child metis
> bore would be the next god of the Heavens.
> Thanks Anyway!

Answer: If people would look for the answers to questions in the material that I post then I would not have so many questions to answer. I had already answered the question about Athena's family weeks ago. For most purposes inclusion of Metis in the family tree is not correct. The classical Greeks preferred to have her spring full grown from the head of Zeus because that is the way wisdom normally comes. Wisdom does not usually involve a sexual process.

Question: what does the goddess Athena suggest about the role of womanhood? About its dangers or pitfalls, and relationships?

Answer: The ancient Greeks were not comfortable with Athena being a woman. They made her born out of the head of Zeus because they did not want wisdom to be coming from a woman. They also required her to be a virgin because they thought sex would pollute the wisdom. Both these requirements make it hard for a woman to take Athena as a role model. In fact Athena and her characteristics might serve to show an ordinary woman what to avoid if she wants to get along. This, of course, is a very superficial view. Women wishing to excell will have to consider Athena. Her benevolence is striking, and her patriotism inspiring. She was also quite productive and invented many useful arts, such as weaving, which would benefit mankind. The ancient Greeks were very keen on women bearing good children, but they seem to have overlooked the benefits of the women being educated for this process. Women have an enormous influence on the wisdom of their children because of their activities when the child is young. And, as Plato points out, women ignorant of the world of work pamper their children and make them weak.

Question: did she ever meet herculies and xena?

Answer: The television shows 'Hercules' and 'Xena' are very fictional and do not represent history very well. Athena was very helpful to the historical Hercules. The ancient Greeks did not have warrior princesses like Xena. The Amazons had warrior queens. Some of the best shows in the Xena series relate to Amazons. O course Athena is an immortal goddess and could still visit the set of either of these shows if she wanted to.

Question: laertes rejuvenated

Answer: Laertes was rejuvenated by the arrival of his son after a twenty year absence.

Question: how does athena help odysseus and how does she not help him?

Answer: Athena helps Odysseus any time wisdom will be useful. But there are times when wisdom is not useful, such as when fate rules, as is the case with Scylla.

Question: how did she get killed?

Answer: Athena is an immortal goddess and will never die.

Question: Who were her enemies and friend among Mt. Olympus

Answer: The goddesses have no enemies. Zeus likes the deities to strive against one another, but he will not allow them to be enemies. The friends of Athena are the people who strive after wisdom and pray to her.

Question: How is the "Story of Crow" related to Athena?

Answer: In Messenia there is a town named Corone (Crow). During classical times the town had a statue of Athena with a crow in her hand.

Question: Why does Athena wear winged sandals?

Answer: She does not actually wear winged sandals. Artists drew these wings to indicate she could move through the air. Actually all goddesses have this ability.

Question: can you explain to me Athenas strong influences

Answer: As the goddess of wisdom, Athena is the personification of wisdom. Wisdom is very important for success in life and getting along in the world.

Question: Why is Athene portrayed as young maiden, when woman who is older have more experiences.

Answer: Athene in not really portrayed as a young maiden, but rather as a beautiful woman. The ancient Greeks did not like to portray older women because they thought older women were not ideal. Ideal women were always young and beautiful. The goddesses such as Athene, were always considered ideal.

Question: what were her responsibilities

Answer: Athena is the Greek goddess of wisdom. She was also the goddess of industries and prudent intelligence in war. She favored the side that used strategy and guile. She was not a goddess of warriors. But her strategy led to victory, so she was a goddess of victory in war. Industries required intelligence too. People would petition her in these areas and she would decide whether to help them. Also she would punish those who ignored her. If someone was especially dedicated to wisdom then she would reward them.

Question: Was Athena an everyday hero?

Answer: No. For everyday things the Greeks turned to Hestia, Demeter, and Dionysus.

Question: How does Athena relate to Hercules? Or does Athena relate to Hercules at all?

Answer:

There are a number of ancient images that show Athena and Herakles together.

Question: What was Athena's owl's name?? And who was her best friend????

Answer: Athena did not have a pet owl. Athena became the owl and the owl became Athena. Nike and Athena were close but Hera, Aphrodite, and Athena acted like sisters.

Question: How did Athena help in the wars of the Greeks againset the Persians ?

Answer: She provided wisdom to the Greek people and Generals.

Question: I need a goddess in another culture that is the same as Athena in greek mythology, So what is another goddess of wisdom in mythology besides Athena?

Answer: "Athena" and alternate names Athene, Ergane, Hygieia, Onga, Parthenos, Polias, Sais, Tithrone. Others include Minerva, Sophia, Isis, A list of such gods and godesses is at: Click here

Question: why is she called the gray-eyed goddess

Answer: The pupils of her eyes are believed to be grey. This was a poetic epithet of Homer. Some translate it as blue-eyed. Hesiod refers to her as bright-eyed. She seems to be a nordic type her. It is possible that the Mycenaeans were blond and blue-eyed, but the Dorians that followed were darker. This also belies her African roots, but she may have been an albino.

Question: I thought there was only ONE Athena. Where did Athena get her many names?

Answer: So did the ancient Greeks. When they found a local goddess with very similar qualities they identified her with Athena. Some times a group of worshippers will be converted to worshipping Athena from another goddess. Athena is said to have defeated that goddess and the name of the defeated goddess will become a title for Athena.

Question: Whose daughter is she?

Answer: Zues is her father. The intent of classical Greek mythology is only Zeus is her parent. The story that Metis is her mother does not provide a true picture of classical mythology.

Question: is athena's temple the parthenon?

Answer: The Parthenon is one of many temples of Athena.

Question: How does Athena help Telemachus mature in the Odyssey??

Answer: Read the Odyssey to determine this.

Question: Did Athena ever have a conflict with Apollo or Hermes?

Answer: Gods and goddesses do not ever conflict. But Zeus encourages them to strive against one another. Athena and Apollo took separate sides in the Trojan war, while Hermes supported Athena's side.

Question: How does Athena offer Odysseus and his son physical assistance and psychological support through several disguises in the Odyssey?

Answer: This question is best answered by reading the Odyssey.

Question: associates of athena

Answer: Nike and Athena are very close. Hera, and Aphrodite are like sisters with Artemis almost as close as a sister.

Question: what does Athene do to help hereos

Answer: She helps them to make wise decisions and protects them if they do.

Question: Was there a relationship between Athena, Artemis, and Aphrodite, something along the lines of "the three virgin goddesses"?

Answer: Not really. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite seem to have split off from one goddess, a fertility, sex, and war goddess. Later they performed as sisters. These goddesses seem to have come from the southeast to Greece. Artemis seems to have come first from the North. Later she had eastern influence. During the Classical period she seems to have become like a sister to the other three. But while Artemis and Athena were virgin, Hera and Aphrodite were not.

Question: the name of her owl

Answer: She had no owl. She is the owl. Athena is her name. Athena seems to have evolved from a bird goddess. In some of her pictures the aegis looks like wings.

Question: what is athena the personification of?

Answer: Wisdom and craft.

Question: What is the relation between Athena and Sopia

Answer: Sophia is not a name in ancient Greek Mythology. But the name derives from the Greek word 'sophos' meaning wisdom. Athena was the goddess of wisdom.

Question: I just want to know what or who Grace is? And what or who Arachnid is?

Answer: Though Grace is a common name today, it is not the name of a Greek Goddess. Rather it is the name of the love and protection that a goddess like Athena provides to mankind. The Graces (Charities) are goddesses personifying charm, grace, and beauty. Their names included Kale (beautiful), Thaleia (flowering), Auxo (the grower), Aglaia (radiant), and Eupheosyne (joy) although later there were thought to be only three.

Arachne is the name of a famous weaver who challenged Athena, the goddess of weaving. As a result she was turned into a spider. Now she weaves gossamer that the goddesses wear.

Question: Do you Have any pictures of the statue of Athena that stood in the Parthenon

Answer:Athena Parthenos. This is a copy of an ancient copy. The original is long gone.

Question: Why do you think that Athena displayed such power and characteristics of men, during a time when women were seen as subservient?

Answer: Men always wish women are subservient, but the important ones rarely are. If women were to live up to their role of bearing children they would have to be given quite a bit of importance, perhaps begrudgingly. In the Ancient Greek society wives got their way. Other women were probably the ones who were stuck with subservience. Athena was accepted just as the wives were accepted.

Question: what citys worshiped her

Answer: Every Greek city worshipped her, but not every city could afford to build a special temple for her as Athens did.

Question: How does Athena benefit from her relationship with Odysseus?

Answer: Odysseus is a testamomial to Athena's power.

Question: What is the significance of Athena's gray eyes?

Answer:The following quote comes from Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.1: "But when I saw that the statue of Athena had blue eyes I found out that the legend about them is Libyan. For the Libyans have a saying that the Goddess is the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, and for this reason has blue eye s like Poseidon."

Athena also had the epithet Hellotis, 'shining one', and was associated with torch dances. These may have been, I think, linked to her identity with a comet and shooting stars. This may also have been the origin of her epithet 'Flashing Eyes'.

Dio Cassius (78:30:1) compared Athena's epiphany to a comet:

Just like a star sent from the son of hidden Kronos a sign to the sea-faring peoples or to those armed and ready for war, radiantly burning in her flight releasing countless torrents of sparks, thus hurrying towards earth Pallas Athene descended between the warring armies, and wonder gripped those who watched it (Dio Cassius, Romaika, 78:30:1).

Athena was throughout the ages popularly referred to with the epithet glaukopis. This is in reference to her eye color, interpreted as blue, green, gray, gray-green, light, bright, brilliant, and so on. The precise meaning used by Homer, the earliest reference made 57 times in the Iliad, may have changed over the ages. Later authors in Roman times, however, generally believed she was blue-eyed.

Various legends had her eye color derived from the sea, from her blue-eyed father Poseidon, or from the color of lake Tritonis, her birthplace in one version. These accounts were probably more after-the-fact explanations for the color of Athena's eyes. More probably, her eye color probably recalls a time still known to Homer when people with light-colored eyes were still common in Greece. Indeed, the Hellenic poet Pindar in his "Nemean Odes" (X, 7) called Athena "glaukopis" (blue-eyed) AND "xantha" (blonde-haired). However, if Athena was directly descended from the pre-Hellenic owl and snake goddesses, we would expect that she would not have this coloring. reference

Question: How does Athena relate to the novel, The Odessey

Answer: The Odyssey is not a novel. It is not even a work of fiction. At worst it is an epic poem stating a myth. At best it is a history. Some parts of the Odyssey seem fantastic while others have been verified by Archeology. Athena is the goddess of wisdom. Even today you can respect Athena by reading the Odyssey and becoming wise.

Question: was athena close to odysseus

Answer: Athena is close to everyone who is wise.

Question: How was Athena both godlike and human (e.g. sins) ?

Answer: A goddess such as Athena cannot sin. A goddess might misbehave from the point of view of Zeus and he might threaten to punish her, but this is not the same as sin. The ancient Greeks believed the deities were willfull and made choices. These choices sometimes seemed evil to the mortals, but that was a result of a limited mortal view.

Question: What art pieces would be found at an ancient festival for Athena?

Answer: A statue, clothing for the statue, various containers, pitchers, an altar, models of body parts, models of activities, coins.

Question: Describe why Athena became goddess of Athens

Answer: Athena gave Athens an olive tree, and of all the gifts that Athens received, this was determined to be the favorite.

Question: Why ia athena on a coin with pegasus?

Answer: Some people thought Pegasus was Athena's horse: Click here

Coins with Athena and Pegasus

Question: What does the goddess Athena control?

Answer: Every goddess has a realm which she controls. Some realms have physical boundaries, like an island or a spring. Some are more spiritual such as a process or quality. Athena is the Greek goddess of wisdom. She was also the goddess of industries and prudent intelligence in war. Athena is not the source of all wisdom, but she is certainly believed to be the source of some of it. She delivers it by appearing to a person as a trusted advisor. The receiving person can recognize the advice as from Athena if the advice is particularly good or pure. One worships Athena not just through prayers for wisdom but also through thought and analysis. Good efforts in this regard can result in recognition by the goddess. Athena can be thought of as providing the rules by which wisdom can be gained but not necessarily all wisdom. Athena does not control thought but may be considered as controling the rewards for good thought.

Question: Why is Athena mostly portrayed in armour-particularly in sculpture, and why, in a time of war with the Persians and the Spartans are so many temples dedicated to Athena, and so few to Ares? Surely this would be hubris and incite Ares' anger?

Answer: Clearly the military strength of the Greeks was strategy and not rage or lust. Ares realm is an emotional one while Athena represents a conquest of emotions. Hubris would also lie in that emotional state. Thus the attention to Athena was to thank her for her favor. Ares did not need to be thanked. Since Athena is so peculiarly Greek it would seem that her amour was a reflection of the Greek realization of the importance of strategy in military victory. This is not to say that the Greeks were not a passionate people. In fact they were extremely passionate. But they were fortunate that they were passionate about rationality. Even the hetaerae carried on philosophical and intellectual conversations.

Question: who is athene's favorite mortal?

Answer: Athena favors mortals who are wise and crafty. She has no most favorite. She did show Odysseus quite a bit of favor. But she also favored Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Aspasia, and Sappho.

Question: In what ways did the Athens worship Athena?

Answer: They built temples for her and had festivals in her honor. But mainly they became involved in intellual pursuits and higher learning. They were the center of the world for learning for over 1000 years.

Question: > How did the people of Ancient Athens view Athena?
She was an importantant goddess who required woman priestesses but her
femininity was unimportant.
> How did the worshipping of Athena bring about new roles for women in the
> Greek Society?
Athena was not much of a role model for women.  But she set an intellectual
tone for the society that even required the hetarae to study rhetoric so
they could argue philosophy with their clients.  Some women may have been
encouraged to study by her, but women in general were not expected to be
educated.   Even so the women of Greece were among the most educated and
cultured women ever.
> In what ways did Athena influence Ancient Athens?
Athena encouraged Greece to be intellectual and industrially productive.
> Why did the Ancient Athenians idolize Athena?
Strategy defeated the Persians during the Persian wars.  This was a great
upset and the Greeks were forever grateful for Athena's help in this great
victory.

Question: what were her major achievments

Answer: Mortals have achievements while goddesses have realms. Athena's realm is knowledge, craft, and stealth. This realm is continuous and choherent and fills all space, but it is also distinct from the other realms of the gods and goddesses. The realm was conceived by her parents and it was this conception which resulted in her birth. A goddess receives no education but is at once all seeing and all knowing and in her thoughts she structures her realm. The natural laws of knowledge result from this structure. She then proceeds to enforce this structure with natural consequences, punishment, revenge, and sometimes exceptions. Regularly she holds court and considers petitions in the form of prayers and gifts. Petions can result in changes of structure, exceptions, or compensation. Some favored patrons can be rewarded with a plea to another deity. The fruition of this process for her realm is her only accomplishment.

Question: what was her favorite pastime

Answer: She like to design and make beautiful garments for the other goddesses and herself.

Question: Where did Athena live?

Answer: She lived in the palace of Zeus in her own apartment with her own servants.

Question: describe the birth of god athena

Answer: The story about Athena being born from the head of Zeus without the aid of a woman is totally silly and I will not repeat it here. I like the story that she was born on the shore of lake Tritonis in Turnisia to Tritonis and Poseidon. I think the sea was a source of knowledge to the Greeks and I am interested in the N. African Amazons. Medusa relates to Athena because she too came from North Africa. Athena wears Medusa's head on her aegis.

Question: I am studying a vase which has artemis, dionysus, apollo, athena and hermes all seated together in a line. Can you help me on the contextual implications of this. why are they together and is it related to a myth?

Answer The other scenes on the vase might provide a clue. But it is obviously an assembly of the gods such as at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.

Question: I read once that Zeus was informed that the child that he impregnanted Metis with would surpass him on the throne. To avert this fate he swallowed Metis whole. The child was Athena, who then came into the world from her father's head fully formed. Do you know any classical resources that would support this idea?

Answer: Apollodorus 1.2.1, 3.6; Hesiod, Theogony 471,886; Plato, Symposium 203.

Question: what were athens special ceromonies/how she was warshippes/her holidays.

Answer: Holidays.

Question: when Athena came out of Zeus head did Zeus die?

Answer: No. He had a temporary uterus in his head. Some say it was the uterus of Metis. Once Athena came out the uterus shrank bank and his head closed up. He actually felt a lot better after this was all over.

Question: Why did the Greeks worship Athena, and why did they consider her the ideal goddess?

Answer: The Greeks saw a great need for wisdom. All goddesses are ideal. Athena's ideality is emphasized by her virginity.

Question: what's Athena's most interesting myth?

Answer: Possibly her birth.

Question: how can i make athenas shield

Answer: Originally the shield or Aegis was simply a goat hide with the image of a gorgon on it. This is easy to make as any hide will do. The image of the gorgon is simply an ugly and scary face. Later the Aegis appears as a blouse that Athena wears. For this you would need to make a leather blouse and put the image of the Gorgon right in the middle of the chest over the heart. Later the Aegis appears as a battle shield. The early shields where made of leather streched over a wooden splint frame much like a drum-head is stretched over a drum. There is a circle of wood with the splints connecting the rim to a central hub as in a wheel. The splints are curved so the result is a dished shield. A good shield had several layers of hardened leather. A leather shield often had an emblem painted on it. Still later the shield was hammered out of a single sheet of bronze and then of steel. The design was often embossed into the metal. A shield has a strap to hold the shield on the arm and a handle that the hand holds.

Shield patterns

Shield of Athena

Athena Parthenos and Shield

Shield of Athena done at Oberlin

Shieldback of Athena done at Oberlin

Making a wooden shield

Clipeus

Question: Who were the immortal enemies and friends of Athena

Answer: All the gods and goddesses are friends and relatives. Normally a goddess such as Athena had no enemies. Zeus liked the gods and goddesses to strive against one another, but he prohibited any more than this. The battles against the Titans and giants are difficult to understand but they were just temporary conditions.

Question: How was Athena's role in the titanomachia and in the war against the giants

Answer: Athena is the goddess of wisdom, but Zeus has no need of wisdom. He is already all-knowing. Athena bears the aegis of Zeus but she cannot handle his lightning bolts. Her role must involve protection then. The Aegis is more powerful than it looks. Unlike an ordinary shield it probably has the ability to difflect lightning bolts and similarly powerful weapons. The Gorgon's head on the Aegis can turn men to stone but it is not clear what the affect is on immortals.

Question: Was Athena stronger then Apollo,Aphrodite,Artemis,Demeter,Hestia, Hera,Hermes,Hephaestus,Hades,Poseidon,Ares and Dionysus

Answer: This seems likely but not certain because each divinity has a separate realm. The strength of each is dependent upon the nature of their realm while realms are difficult to compare.

Question: Who played impotant roles in Athena's lifes

Answer: The only beings who play any constructive role in the life of a deity are the beings that conceive the deity, in the case of Athena this would be Zeus and perhaps Metis(Prudence).

Question: why was the olive tree special and what significance did it have during her times?

Answer: The olive tree was a miracle plant to the ancient Greeks. They could not grow standard crops in their dry climate with poor soils. But the olive tree thrived there. The olive tree was especially valuable because it produced oil and a fruit that was tasty in a preserved state. Both products were in demand and could be traded for other goods. The olive tree was one of the staples of their international trade.

Question: I don't understand a fact.If Athena is completly virgin,is it normal the birth of Herictonius from Hephestus?

Answer: Erechtheus(Erecthonius) was born in the body of Gaia from the sperm of Hephaestus. Hephaestus became exicited by the beauty of Athena and tried to rape her. But raping a goddess is much, much harder than raping a real woman, even for a god. Athena fended him off and his seed fell on the ground. There it was taken by Gaia and it impregnated her. From this seed Erecthonius was born. But among the deities the act of conception is often more important than the act of birth. The fact that Hephaestus was thinking of Athena when he produced the sperm somehow made her the mother even though it was Gaia who gave birth.

Question: Two questions about Hestia:why is she also called"mother"?why is she represented wilth a large breast in some statues?Is it a symbol of fertility?

Answer: Hestia was associated with the world of women because it was they that tended the fire and used it. But I find no references of the sort you mention.

Question: What does Athena look like naked

Answer: She looks like a beautiful, perfectly formed, naked woman, except she is about a head taller than the average man.

Question: are picture Athena nude and can i see them

Answer: I do not know of an ancient Greek picture of Athena nude but here is one from about 1600 AD: Rubens.

Question: do u have any pictures of the statue of zeues or of the oracle at delphi?

Answer: Statue of Zeus, Oracle at Delphi

Question: who feared her

Answer: Athena was feared by all the ancient Greeks and many of their enemies.

Question: what does athena do in the trojan war to odysseus?

Answer: Athena encourages Odysseus to be wise.

Question: I have to do a presentation on Athena, What should I look like or wear?

Answer: You do not have to wear anything. Just be wise and crafty. Athena would appear to someone in the guise of a trusted friend. You could only recognise her by the wisdom of her advise. Often she appeared as a man. But when she wanted to look like herself she had a helmet on her head and her aegis to protect her. She also carried a spear. Unlike a mortal woman whose status is lowered by appearing naked, a goddess such as Athena could appear nude. This symbolized the purity of her nature.

Question: Why is Athena Zeus's favorite daughter

Answer: Wisdom is the key to success.

Question: when and where was Athena born?

Answer: All goddesses were born before historic time and no year is attached to her birth. Since she was born from the head of Zeus she was probably born in the palace of Zeus. Some said she was born on the shore of lake Tritoness in what is now Tunisia.

Question: what kind of crafts did Athena teach?

Answer: All crafts, but especially spinning and weaving, baking of bread, and growing and pressing of olives.

Question: do you know the owl's name

Answer: Athena. Athena does not have a pet owl. When she wants she changes into an owl. So the own is Athena.

Question: how does athena use her magic powers to help odysseus

Answer: Athena does not use any magic powers. Magic is the realm of Hecate. What she does Odysseus actually has to do himself for the most part. She does change the timing of things to help Odysseus. Through her suggestion people show up when Odysseus needs them. The best example is the suggestion she gives Nausicaa.

Question: is Athena and Athene the same person?

Answer: Yes, there is only one goddess of wisdom

Question: What were Athena's responsibility?

Answer: A goddess's responsibility is only to maintain her realm. It is her nature to do this, but she also rules and holds court. Listening to prayers and adjusting reality is part of this. But unlike a mortal queen her personality is not different from her realm, so she does not choose to hold court and listen to prayers. For her it is like a reflex and she gives it little thought. In fact in many cases thought and action are one. The realm of Athena is wisdom.

Question: Is it true that Athena's emblem is a gorgon head?

Answer: No. The gorgon's head is the emblem of Zeus. The emblem of Athena is either an owl or a goddess with helmet and aegis. Sometimes she carries a spear as well.

Question: picture of athena and olive

Answer: Click here

Question: who is in Athena's family tree?Can i please have a picture of the family tree

Answer: The book by Edith Hamilton has such a picture. See: Click here

Question: where did "pallas" came from

There are a number of stories about the source of the word 'Pallas'. The Greek dictionary relates that this is simply the name of Athena. There are several gods named Pallas. Stries tell of their defeat and the name passed to Athena. Pallax is a concubine and this is related to the virginity of Athena. Palladion is a statue of Pallas. It is just as likely that Pallas came from Palladion as Palladion from Pallas.

Question: What actions did Athena advise Telemachus to take?

Answer: This is a good question to answer while you are reading the Odyssey of Homer.

Question: What does Alalcomenean Athene mean? I've heard that Pallas may mean shaker, refering to her spear, what do you think?

Answer: Pallas probably comes from Palladium and not vice versa. The Palladium could have been a thousand years old and carved by a previous culture and the meaning of the name to that previous culture is lost. Alalcomenean may refer to the fact that Athena was born in Alalcomenae, but other cities thought it meant strong defender.

Question: where did she come from

Answer: The classical Greeks liked to think of her as born from the head of Zeus. An older story has her born from Metis, prudence, and Zeus. The ancient Greek thinkers proposed that she was born on the shore of Lake Tritonis in Tunisia and she came over to Greece from Tunisia. Some sources indicate Athena is 'Athe anna' and corresponds to a sumerian goddess. Reference. In fact, her origin is in doubt.

Question: Why was she the virgin Godess.

Answer: Wisdom must be pure and untainted.

Question: Was Athena really born from Zeus's head, or did he just lie?

Answer: Ancient Greek myths are never lies, rather they are stories that were believed by many people, although not always everybody. Zeus, in particular is not capable of lying, because of his perfection. The ancient Greeks were very logical people and it is logical that Athena, the goddess of wisdom, should come from the head of Zeus. But there are other stories of her birth. The most exciting one is that she was born on the shores of lake Tritonis in what is now Tunisia. A book, Black Athena, claims that peoples of the Sahara emigrated to Crete as the Sahara dried up over 4000 years ago. He claims they brought Athena with them. There are similarities between Greek religion and the native religions of Africa, but much needs to be done to establish this move as a certainty. Most compelling would be a connection between the mysterious Minoan language and some African one.

Question: why does athena have greeys

Answer:"Above the Cerameicus and the portico called the King's Portico is a temple of Hephaestus. I was not surprised that by it stands a statue of Athena, be cause I knew the story about Erichthonius. But when I saw that the statue of Athena had blue eyes I found out that the legend about them is Libyan. For the Libyans have a saying that the Goddess is the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, and for this reason has blue eyes like Poseidon." Pausanias,Description of Greece, 1.14.6. This may also be a reference to the fact that the Mycenaeans were a European people with blue eyes and blond hair, While the classical Greeks were Indo-European with black hair and black eyes.

Question: what impact does she have on history

Answer: A goddess exists outside of history and does not really affect it. A goddess sets up and then maintains her realm. Within that realm mortals act in ways that determine history. By studying the ways of the goddess a mortal can become wise in directing his actions. Then he can make good history. In this way the Athenians were grateful in the way Athena helped them defeat the Persians. But she really did not do anything. By studying her ways they prepared an effective strategy to defeat the Persians. They made history and they were forever grateful to Athena for helping them. The Parthenon still stands as a symbol of this gratitude.

Question: who was the son of athena

Answer: Athena had no son. Erichthonius was adopted by Athena and is called her son but is not.

Question: does athena has a husband

Answer: No. Never.

Question: How did the goddess of wisdom go from Athena to Minerva??

Answer: We are not certain about the origin of Athena but she may have come from the Northern Sahara when it dried up about 4000 BCE. Some of these peoples may have come to Crete bringing Athena with them. Others may have migrated to Italy with a similar goddess. At any rate Minerva and Athena developed separately for a few thousand years. The peoples in Italy were not especially skilled in literature and the arts and Minerva developed little mythology. The ancient Cretans became highly skilled in the arts, and the Greeks became passionate about literature. Athena developed a great deal of myth which the Italians admired. Greeks colonized all over the Mediterranean and especially Italy. These colonists and the natives brought Athena and Minerva into contact. The similarities were noted and the two goddesses were identified. When the Romans conquered Greece in 200 BCE they were conquered by the Greek culture and incorporated it into their own. Athena became Minerva. Since Minerva had little mythology of her own the difference between Minerva and Athena is insignificant. Authors such as Ovid did add a little new material to the Greek literature. The Romans did also continue their unique festivals and celebrations.

Minerva

Question: What is the significance of Erichthonius and Athena? Was this myth an attempt by the Atheneans to make this masculine goddess seem motherly?

Answer: No. Every wise student has Athena as a guide. This was an attempt to show that Erichthonius was a particularly adept student. I do not consider it wise to style Athena as masculine. Women have a very important role in the development of wisdom and attempts to deny them their due credit have been very distructive. This is done usually by men who are doubtful of their own masculinity, ignorant of women's role, and jealous of their power. One problem with the isolation of women in the ancient Greek society was that men could make comments about women which the women could not correct. The presence of important goddesses, like Athena, was an advantage, however. Women were called upon to understand and intercede with the goddesses. It was also probably thought that mistreating a helpless mortal woman would be frowned upon by the powerful goddesses so women would generally be treated with respect so as to avoid the wrath of a goddess.

Question: Why did Athena release Orestes when he was guilty of killing his mother? Was it to stop the cycle of homicide in that family?

Answer: It seems that the action of Orestes must be interpreted in a more global context. Clytemnestra was asserting her right as a woman to control the choice of the king of a state. She violated the sanctity of marriage and murdered in the process of doing this. She was more than an evil doer who must be punished. She was setting up a polluted form of government. Orestes was judged, then, not as a murderer, but as a protector of sanity in government. He had to be exonerated for any murders that he performed in the process of protecting the sanity of the state against persons who would try to enforce unnatural laws.

Question: what were athena's responsibilities? what made her angry and what made her happy? what would happen to the people if the y made her happy or angry? would they get rewarded or punished?

Answer: Athena is the goddess of wisdom. Wise thinking makes her happy and is rewarded. Stupidity is punished.

Question: So Hephaestus jumped onto Athena, his penis entered in goddess' vagina but at the moment of ejaculation Athena was opposed and seed ended on Athena's neck

Answer: No! No! No! But your obsevation is pretty funny though. Actually when Athena saw Hephaestus so excited with her she tried to save his dignity and she tried to run away. But the vision of Athena running away was too sexy for Hephaetus and he suffered a premature ejaculation. When the sperm shot out of his penis with great force (he was a god after all) some of it landed on Athena's leg. She disgustedly wiped it off with her hand and flung it on the ground. The dignity of neither one of these deities was preserved by this incident. It was Athena who took the heat for this incident though because when the sperm landed on the ground it entered the vagina of Gaia (her vagina is the soil of the earth) and a baby was eventually born from the seed which Athena raised. Athena is more like the husband in this case because it was she that planted the seed.

Question: Why does Athena stay a virgin? Why is it important to her?

Answer: Athena must be uncorrupted in her judgement in order to maintain her realm of knowledge. Specifically she must be uncorrupted by sex, which often clouds one's judgement.

Question: Was athena blond haired?

Answer: Of course as a shape shifter she can instantly wear her hair any color she wants. She is ususally shown with the color preferred by the artist. I prefer red hair on a goddess so I often portray her with red hair. It is believed that she originated in Tunisia in North Africa. At that time she would have been portrayed with black skin and black hair. She then moved to Crete and probably was the snake goddess. There she was portrayed with fair skin and black hair. Later the Mycenaeans adopted her. They portrayed her with fair skin and blond hair. The classical Greeks portrayed her with darker skin and darker hair.


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